Write it as if you were giving direction for someone else to do the lab. It may be helpful to provide a figure to diagram your experimental setup. Numerical data obtained from your procedure usually is presented as a table.
Data encompasses what you recorded when you conducted the experiment. It's just the facts, not any interpretation of what they mean.
Describe in words what the data means. The Data section contains numbers. The Analysis section contains any calculations you made based on those numbers. This is where you interpret the data and determine whether or not a hypothesis was accepted. This is also where you would discuss any mistakes you might have made while conducting the investigation. You may wish to describe ways the study might have been improved.
Most of the time the conclusion is a single paragraph that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether your hypothesis was accepted or rejected, and what this means. Graphs and figures must both be labeled with a descriptive title.
Label the axes on a graph, being sure to include units of measurement. The independent variable is on the X-axis.
The dependent variable the one you are measuring is on the Y-axis. Be sure to refer to figures and graphs in the text of your report. The first figure is Figure 1, the second figure is Figure 2, etc. If your research was based on someone else's work or if you cited facts that require documentation, then you should list these references.
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The introduction of your lab report is a chance for you to "hook" the reader and preview the important details you'll be talking about in the later. The primary job of any scientific Introduction is to establish the purpose for doing An effective introduction to a lab report typically performs the following tasks.
Helmenstine holds a Ph. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Updated January 26, The title of the experiment. First, read the experimental procedure carefully. Second, rewrite the procedures in a flowchart format. Keep in mind that the flowchart should be brief and cover all the steps in a simple and easy to follow manner. There should be no complicated sentences or paragraphs in the flowchart.
The bicarbonate feed pump was initiated. If you used the ideal gas law to determine the volume of your unknown gas, for example, you should state what the ideal gas law is and how the appropriate equation is used. How to Write a Proposal Report. Because your study is providing either support for or opposition to a theory in psychology, you must inform the reader of that particular theory. Tone The tone of your report should be formal, but not too elevated.
You will have to do a lot of rewriting in order to simplify the procedures into a flowchart format. This is exactly why we want you to do it. This gives you a chance to THINK about what you read and how to rewrite it in a way that can be implemented into a flowchart. Always remember to reference where the experimental procedures are coming from in the pre-lab report.
Please DO NOT simply copy the entire procedure or majority of the procedure and make it looks like a flowchart. Always write in pen. You can't really erase anything, anyway, because of the carbon paper below it. White-out is a big no-no, too. Always record data directly into your lab notebook. I know some people like to be neat, and have nice formatting and all that, but it's more important to make sure you record all of the data immediately in case you forget what you wanted to say later or you forget to copy other data into your notebook.
Never scratch something out completely. Yeah, nobody's perfect and of course also nobody wants to be reminded of that, but you may discover that you were right in the first place, and now you wish you could read what you wrote before. Also, if you make a mistake it's a good idea to keep a record if it so you or someone else trying to do your experiment can remember to not make the same mistake twice.
In addition to writing down all those numbers data , you should keep an eye nose, ear, etc. If you add one thing to another and it evolves a gas, gets hot or cold, changes color or odor, precipitates a solid, reacts really quickly or slowly, or anything noticeable, you should write down that observation in your lab notebook. Other things to consider including are: make and type of any machine you are using, concentrations of all the standards you used, and etc.
One of the reasons you are doing this goes back to what I said about mistakes earlier. An experiment is exactly that: an experiment. If it turns out that you get an unexpected result, you can go back and trace your observations to see where the error occurred.
If you don't have any observat ions, this is really hard to do. The bottom line: write what you do and do what you write. Data again?
Recopy your data from the in-lab here in a nice neat format tables are usually nice and neat. This is your chance to organize it into a more readable form now that you are done with the experiment and impress the TA with your organizational skills. It's a good idea to write out all the formulas you use in your calculations.
Personally, I like to work through the problem using just the formula, and then plug in the numbers at the end to get my final answer.
Also, show all of your work. One more point is to be sure to include the units when you are doing a calculation, and don't drop the units halfway through the calculation. This is actually a pretty powerful tool because if your answer has the wrong units you know you must have made an error somewhere along the way. Conversely, if your answer has the correct units, you could still be wrong, but at least you are on the right track and probably much of the time your answer is correct, too!
You can even do the calculation using just units and no numbers and see if the units cancel out in the right way to test if you method is good this is called dimensional analysis. The conclusion is alot like the introduction except, instead of a summary of what you are going to do, it's a summary of what you did. The reason you have a conclusion is because your lab report might be long and the reader may not remember all the important points that you stated.
Also, it gives you a chance to explain anything that might have gone wrong or could be improved, as well as propose future experiments. Like the introduction, it should be short and to the point. Again, these are only my suggestions, but here's what I think you should always include:.