Interventions typically include training for police to learn the principles, practices, and techniques of procedural justice. The way that officers and agencies are perceived affects the amount of respect that citizens show to officers and the degree to which citizens comply with directives issued by officers and agencies Dai, Examples of effective interventions include the following:.
The Community Oriented Policing Services office has sponsored a detailed guide on procedural justice PDF Kunard and Moe, , including educational examples of each of the four major components of procedural justice. Kunard also provides a short slide presentation with examples PDF of what sorts of interactions are associated with procedural justice and what sorts of actions are not.
Examples are as follows:.
Tip: Interactions consistent with procedural justice: asking for and allowing people to explain their side of the story; clearly explaining what is happening, what will happen and why, and what their rights are; offering assistance such as service referrals ; and following through on providing it. Interactions inconsistent with procedural justice: insulting people; silencing them; not allowing any explanation of their side of the story; and refusing to provide any assistance, especially in a hostile manner.
It includes a range of guides on what procedural justice is, tools on specific procedural justice approaches, and articles discussing the research behind procedural justice.
There is a broad array of interventions that can improve dialogue with the community. Law enforcement agencies might choose to apply these in a variety of ways.
In their most basic form, these interventions include those designed to strengthen the social bonds among law enforcement officers and the members of the community that they are sworn to serve and protect. Examples of such interventions include the following:. Tip: Engaging with community members should not be limited to visible presence and enforcement actions.
Officers should attend important community gatherings, such as social events and town hall meetings.
While engaging in these activities, officers should ensure that they get to know the members of the community and hear their concerns—and that community members respond in kind. The in-depth essay on problem-oriented policing includes a section on a key aspect of building dialogue—getting, and acting on, information from the community about crime problems.
Frontline police should be assigned to a community long enough to become familiar with its residents, patterns of life, etc. The same officers should conduct regular e. During these patrols, police need to have routine discussions with residents to learn more about them and the issues facing them. Officers can then focus their deterrence and investigative resources on the crimes and public nuisances that community members have indicated are most important to them Tuffin, ; also see the discussion of problem-oriented policing for more on talking with the community to learn about ongoing crime problems.
Another method of increasing dialogue is called diversionary conferencing or restorative justice conferencing Mazerolle et al. These conferences are meetings, administered by a police officer, involving an offender, a victim, and other involved community members to discuss a lower-level or juvenile crime and to collectively agree on suitable restitution from the offender.
Mazerolle et al. Sherman et al. Tip: To implement diversionary conferencing, police should receive training that prepares them to convene and mediate discussions among offenders, victims, family, friends, and other relevant representatives from the community. Community policing stresses prevention, early identification, and timely intervention to deal with issues before they become unwieldy problems. Individual officers tend to function as general-purpose practitioners who bring together both government and private resources to achieve results. Officers are encouraged to spend considerable time and effort in developing and maintaining personal relationships with citizens, businesses, schools, and community organizations.
Here are some other common features of community policing:. Many police departments and police officers define their role primarily in terms of crime control. The very term law enforcement agency is certainly an indication of this focus. But policing is much more than law enforcement. Officers understand that resolving a problem with unruly people drinking at a public park, working to reduce truancy at a middle school, marshalling resources to improve lighting in a mobile home park, and removing abandoned vehicles from streets, may all be forms of valid and valuable police work, which affect the livability of a neighborhood.
The police department strives to actively involve citizens in its operations, through a variety of means. Volunteers are widely used, whether college interns or retired seniors. Citizen patrols and crime prevention initiatives are welcomed and encouraged. Area commanders meet often with members of the public to solicit input and feedback. Many internal committees include public participation. Policy decisions typically involve opportunities for input from citizens, and the department has both formal and informal mechanisms for this purpose.
Promotional boards include citizens.
The department seeks to educate the general public about police work in various ways, including publications, web sites, public-access television, town hall meetings, citizen police academies. The department accepts and even encourages citizen review of its performance. The primary division of labor for the police is geographical. Officers identify with their area of assignment, rather than the work shift or functional division. Commanders are assigned to geographical areas and given wide latitude to deploy their personnel and resources within that area.
Individual officers adopt even smaller geographical areas and feel a sense of ownership for that area. Officers seek out detailed information about police incidents which have occurred in their area of assignment during their off-duty time. Officers can expect to work in the same geographical area for many years. Rotation of geographical assignments is rare. The organization values the expertise and familiarity that comes with long-term assignment to the same area.
Most operational decisions are decentralized to the level of execution. Field officers are given broad discretion to manage their own uncommitted time. Operational policies are concise, and serve as general guidelines for professional practice more than detailed rules and regulations. First line supervisors are heavily involved in decisions that are ordinarily reserved for command ranks in traditional police departments. The department employs numerous methods to involve employees at all levels in decision-making.
Community policing emphasizes on improving the general relationship of the police to the community at large, to minority communities and to organized community groups has undoubtedly helped the police be more effective in their efforts to address particular community problems in a problem-oriented framework. Also, using the police more involved in the daily activities for the grouped community will assist in the revitalization of this community. Community policing is seen as an effective way to promote public safety and to enhance the quality of life in a community. Although these principles were intended to build trust within community policing, positions and power of police have often been over abused throughout the public creating a sense of rebellion. American policing under fire: Misconduct and reform. Weitzer, R.
Staff meetings, committees, task forces, quality circles, and similar groups are impaneled often to address issues of internal management. Many workplace initiatives begin with ideas or concepts brought forward from line employees.
Obtaining input from frontline employees is viewed as an essential part of any policy decision. The department has comparatively few levels of rank, and rank is seldom relied upon to settle disagreements. Field officers dominate the sworn work force. Officers are expected to handle a huge variety of police incidents, and to follow through on such incidents from beginning to end. Specialization is limited to those areas where considerable expertise is an absolute necessity. Even when specialists are used, their role is to work cooperatively with field officers, rather than assume responsibility for cases or incidents from field officers.
Most specialists view their jobs as offering technical expertise and support to field personnel. Senior police managers are deeply involved in community affairs. They speak out frequently and freely on issues of community concern, some of which are only tangentially related to law enforcement per se. Police managers are encouraged to pursue important community issues as a personal cause. Elected officials consult with police managers often.
Police representation is obligatory on committees or study groups which are set up to examine significant issues on the public agenda, and it is not uncommon for police officers to serve in leadership positions in community organizations. The police department employs techniques to manage its workload in order to make blocks of time available for police officers to address identified problems.
The police response to an emerging problem typically involves significant input and participation from outside the department. Rather than merely responding to demands for police services, the department employees a Problem-Oriented Policing POP approach: identifying emergent problems, gathering data, bringing together stakeholders, and implementing specific strategies targeting the problem.
The police response to an on-going or repetitive problem seldom involves only police resources. The police are concerned not only with high-visibility crimes, but with minor offenses which contribute to fear of crime, and negatively effect public perception of city or neighborhood safety. The police define success and accomplishment primarily by the results achieved and the satisfaction of the consumer of services, rather than by strictly internal measures of the amount of work completed.
Thus, there may be decreased emphasis on common productivity measures such as clearance rate, numbers of arrests, response time, etc. Officers receive frequent recognition for initiative, innovation, and planning. The department systematically acknowledges problem-oriented policing projects that achieve results. Seasoned field officers are highly valued for their skill and knowledge, and feel little pressure to compete for promotion to supervisory positions in order to advance their career.
Commendations and awards go to officers for excellent police work of all kinds, not just crime control. Officers receive the respect and admiration of their colleagues as much for their empathy, compassion, concern for quality, and responsiveness, as for their skill at criminal investigation, interrogation, and zeal in law enforcement. Despite the claims of some ill-informed critics, community policing is not soft on crime. Quite the contrary, it can significantly improve the ability of the police to discover criminal conduct, clear offenses, and make arrests.
Moreover, though some of these may be used as specific strategies, community policing is not:. Individual programs or projects that form part of this change may be implemented, but community policing is not implemented. It is a process that evolves, develops, takes root and grows, until it is an integral part of the formal and informal value system of both the police and the community as a whole.
Rather, it can best be discerned by observing the daily work of officers. It exists when officers spend a significant amount of their available time out of their patrol cars; when officers are common sight in businesses, schools, PTA meetings, recreation centers; when most want to work the street by choice; when individual officers are often involved in community affairs-cultural events, school events, meetings of service clubs, etc.
It exists when most citizens know a few officers by name; when officers know scores of citizens in their area of assignment, and have an intimate knowledge of their area. You can see it plainly when most officers are relaxed and warmly human-not robotic; when any discussion of a significant community issue involves the police; and when few organizations would not think of tackling a significant issue of community concern without involving the police.
The community-based police department is open-it has a well-used process for addressing citizen grievances, relates well with the news media, and cultivates positive relationships with elected officials. Late that year, Chief George K. We are perhaps the only police department in the United States that has been involved so long and so thoroughly in a conscious effort to refine and enhance the community-based approach. Twice in , , and we have embarked on comprehensive strategic planning initiatives involving scores of employees and dozens of recommendations for enhancing our efforts.
We have done exceedingly well at incorporating certain aspects of community-based policing in the fabric of daily life at LPD.
Concerning long-term geographical assignment, or the generalist officer approach, for example, we have a long track record of successful practice. In others, such as problem-oriented policing, we have steadily improved. Our problem-oriented policing projects are becoming both more frequent and more sophisticated.