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They all play a major part in the whole scheme of the transcendental view viewpoint and exemplify transcendental beliefs. The main focuses of these essays are all intertwined by the common ground Transcendentalism and its many facets. Even though there are many points of emphasis in these essays, they all have one major focal point Research Papers words 2. Aristotle uses a rather categorical approach to friendship. By making strict delineations and then using examples, he establishes a rather strict definition of friendship that is created along lines of social class Research Papers words 4 pages.
To live life without the experience of friendship, is not living. Human interaction is a necessity to survival, but developed friendships are essential to the successful well being of anyone. Based upon the American Heritage Dictionary, the definition of a friend is,?
Herein he unfolds the sacred germ of his instinct, screened from influence. The Arabian proverb says, "A fig-tree, looking on a fig-tree, becometh fruitful. It seemed to me, also, that in it might be shown men a ray of divinity, the present action of the soul of this world, clean from all vestige of tradition, and so the heart of man might be bathed by an inundation of eternal love, conversing with that which he knows was always and always must be, because it really is now. He learns that he who  has mastered any law in his private thoughts is master to that extent of all men whose language he speaks, and of all into whose language his own can be translated. The gifts of fortune may be present or absent, but all the speed in that contest depends on intrinsic nobleness, and the contempt of trifles. It makes no difference whether the actors be many or one, a tyrant or a mob. Emerson did not long remain a minister.
A person whom one knows, likes and trusts.. But to all, Friendship has no defined terminology. The definition of a friend, and friendship, is based upon oneself?
Research Papers words 3 pages. At the same time, America had declared its freedom and they still continued to write their opinion about certain things. Believing in freedom, he wants people to always make a choice, no matter what the situation is or where the rules are laid Walt Whitman published the innovative poetry collection Leaves of Grass in and sent a copy to Emerson for his opinion. Emerson responded positively, sending Whitman a flattering five-page letter in response.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, in the summer of , would venture into the great wilderness of upstate New York. William James Stillman was a painter and founding editor of an art journal called the Crayon. Stillman was born and grew up in Schenectady which was just south of the Adirondack mountains. He would later travel there to paint the wilderness landscape and to fish and hunt.
He would share his experiences in this wilderness to the members of the Saturday Club, raising their interest in this unknown region. James Russell Lowell  and William Stillman would lead the effort to organize a trip to the Adirondacks.
Complete Essay: Friendship. We have a great selfishness that chills like east winds the world, the whole human family is bathed with an element of love like a . Essays, First Series . Friendship. A ruddy drop of manly blood. The surging sea outweighs, The world uncertain comes and goes, The lover rooted stays.
They would begin their journey on August 2, , traveling by train, steam boat, stagecoach and canoe guide boats. News that these cultured men were living like "Sacs and Sioux" in the wilderness appeared in newspapers across the nation. This would become known as the " Philosophers Camp  ". This event was a landmark in the 19th-century intellectual movement, linking nature with art and literature. Although much has been written over many years by scholars and biographers of Emerson's life, little has been written of what has become known as the "Philosophers Camp".
Yet, his epic poem "Adirondac"  reads like a journal of his day to day detailed description of adventures in the wilderness with his fellow members of the Saturday Club. This two week camping excursion in the Adirondacks brought him face to face with a true wilderness, something he spoke of in his essay "Nature"  published in He said, "in the wilderness I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages". Emerson was staunchly opposed to slavery, but he did not appreciate being in the public limelight and was hesitant about lecturing on the subject.
He did, however, give a number of lectures during the pre-Civil War years, beginning as early as November, He gave a number of speeches and lectures, and notably welcomed John Brown to his home during Brown's visits to Concord. Around this time, in , Emerson published The Conduct of Life , his seventh collection of essays. In this book, Emerson "grappled with some of the thorniest issues of the moment," and "his experience in the abolition ranks is a telling influence in his conclusions.
Emerson visited Washington, D.
C, at the end of January He gave a public lecture at the Smithsonian on January 31, , and declared:, "The South calls slavery an institution I call it destitution Emancipation is the demand of civilization". Lincoln was familiar with Emerson's work, having previously seen him lecture. Chase, the secretary of the treasury; Edward Bates, the attorney general; Edwin M. Stanton, the secretary of war; Gideon Welles, the secretary of the navy; and William Seward, the secretary of state. Emerson delivered his eulogy. He often referred to Thoreau as his best friend,  despite a falling-out that began in after Thoreau published A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.
Emerson served as a pallbearer when Hawthorne was buried in Concord, as Emerson wrote, "in a pomp of sunshine and verdure". Starting in , Emerson's health began declining; he wrote much less in his journals. In the spring of , Emerson took a trip on the transcontinental railroad , barely two years after its completion. Along the way and in California he met a number of dignitaries, including Brigham Young during a stopover in Salt Lake City.
Part of his California visit included a trip to Yosemite , and while there he met a young and unknown John Muir , a signature event in Muir's career. Emerson's Concord home caught fire on July 24, He called for help from neighbors and, giving up on putting out the flames, all attempted to save as many objects as possible. While the house was being rebuilt, Emerson took a trip to England, continental Europe, and Egypt. He left on October 23, , along with his daughter Ellen  while his wife Lidian spent time at the Old Manse and with friends.
The problems with his memory had become embarrassing to Emerson and he ceased his public appearances by As Holmes wrote, "Emerson is afraid to trust himself in society much, on account of the failure of his memory and the great difficulty he finds in getting the words he wants. It is painful to witness his embarrassment at times". Emerson's religious views were often considered radical at the time. He believed that all things are connected to God and, therefore, all things are divine.
I believe in the 'still, small voice,' and that voice is Christ within us. Emerson did not become an ardent abolitionist until , though his journals show he was concerned with slavery beginning in his youth, even dreaming about helping to free slaves.
In June , shortly after Charles Sumner, a United States Senator, was beaten for his staunch abolitionist views, Emerson lamented that he himself was not as committed to the cause. He wrote, "There are men who as soon as they are born take a bee-line to the axe of the inquisitor.
Wonderful the way in which we are saved by this unfailing supply of the moral element". In early , provoked by the murder of an abolitionist publisher from Alton, Illinois named Elijah Parish Lovejoy , Emerson gave his first public antislavery address. As he said, "It is but the other day that the brave Lovejoy gave his breast to the bullets of a mob, for the rights of free speech and opinion, and died when it was better not to live". By August 1, , at a lecture in Concord, he stated more clearly his support for the abolitionist movement: "We are indebted mainly to this movement, and to the continuers of it, for the popular discussion of every point of practical ethics".
Emerson is often known as one of the most liberal democratic thinkers of his time who believed that through the democratic process, slavery should be abolished.
While being an avid abolitionist who was known for his criticism of the legality of slavery, Emerson struggled with the implications of race. Not until he was well into his 30s did Emerson begin to publish writings on race and slavery, and not until he was in his late 40s and 50s did he became known as an antislavery activist. During his early life, Emerson seems to develop a hierarchy of races based on faculty to reason or rather, whether African slaves were distinguishably equal to white men based on their ability to reason.
I saw ten, twenty, a hundred large lipped, lowbrowed black men in the streets who, except in the mere matter of language, did not exceed the sagacity of the elephant. Now is it true that these were created superior to this wise animal, and designed to control it? As with many supporters of slavery, during his early years, Emerson seems to have thought that the faculties of African slaves were not equal to their white owners. But this belief in racial inferiorities did not make Emerson a supporter of slavery.
Emerson saw himself as a man of "Saxon descent". In a speech given in titled "Permanent Traits of the English National Genius", he said, "The inhabitants of the United States, especially of the Northern portion, are descended from the people of England and have inherited the traits of their national character". White Americans who were native-born in the United States and of English ancestry were categorized by him as a separate "race", which he thought had a position of being superior to other nations.
His idea of race was based on a shared culture, environment, and history. He believed that native-born Americans of English descent were superior to European immigrants, including the Irish, French, and Germans, and also as being superior to English people from England, whom he considered a close second and the only really comparable group.
Later in his life, Emerson's ideas on race changed when he became more involved in the abolitionist movement while at the same time he began to more thoroughly analyze the philosophical implications of race and racial hierarchies. His beliefs shifted focus to the potential outcomes of racial conflicts. Emerson's racial views were closely related to his views on nationalism and national superiority, specifically that of the Saxons of ancient England, which was a common view in the United States of that time.
Emerson used contemporary theories of race and natural science to support a theory of race development. Such conflicts were necessary for the dialectic of change that would eventually allow the progress of the nation. This hybridization process would lead to a superior race that would be to the advantage of the superiority of the United States.
Emerson was a supporter of the spread of community libraries in the 19th century, having this to say of them: "Consider what you have in the smallest chosen library. A company of the wisest and wittiest men that could be picked out of all civil countries, in a thousand years, have set in best order the results of their learning and wisdom.